I haven't read through this whole thread so I don't know if anyone else has addressed it, but at the beginning of TVH, Burnham and Georgiou talk about not violating (at least, not directly) General Order 1, then proceed to undermine themselves by making their ship appear in the sky like Into Darkness. At the least, it demonstrates a certain willingness to set aside Starfleet's stated principles for "the greater good". However, that attitude becomes more problematic when it comes to dealing with an overtly hostile race like the Klingons. There is no stated harm to providing the desert aliens with fresh water, but who knows the consequences of their choice? How does their appearance (and the appearance of the Shenzhou) affect this primitive race? Ultimately, what matters is not the specific effect on this particular race, but the sort of effect that sort of attitude can have.