This originated with TV Tropes, as it happens, but I thought I'd post an expanded version here, in part so we can compare and speculate together, and so you can add any patterns I've missed. The alien races in the novel 'verse have naming conventions, of course, often expanded from what we heard canonically, and they follow the amusing course of trying to stay true to the source while also incorporating variety. All: We all know that TV Trek in particular went overboard with the "it's feminine so it ends in an a" convention. We can, I propose, just chalk that up to translators. E.g. in the Voyager episode "The Chute", we hear a fair few Akritirian names. All are one or two syllables save one - a female's three-syllable name ending in "a". Personally I assume her name is two syllables, but something about those syllables or the way they're put together signifies an unmistakable feminine to their culture, so the translator flings an "a" on to the end. Alonis: This one is my speculation. Sometimes we see Alonis with long names (and only one), as in A Singular Destiny. More often, they have a single-syllable first name and then a long middle name and medium-sized last name. Different cultures, perhaps, but odd that only one kind shows up in a given work. Then I noticed that there was a pattern to the first name/syllable, that seemed almost Tzenkethi in its implications. Tel Ammanis Lent was a diplomat, and Tel Venatil Liss was also a diplomat. From what we can tell, then, Alonis have long names like Quirmirkis, Nerramibus or Liezakranor. When off-world, they add a shorter additional name to the beginning to designate their function (“Tel” is diplomat, “Los” is soldier or military leader), and split the name in two (e.g. Admiral Los Tirasol Mentir is probably Tirasolmentir back home, Ambassador Tel Ammanis Lent is probably Ammanislent?). Andorians: This is known in detail, of course. Andorians have a given name and a familial surname, with their surname containing a prefix indicating which of the four sexes and corresponding genders they belong to. This is the official registry system and all Andorians have one of these names, but they may not be using them or primarily answering to them. For example, Shran's full "Imperial name" is Hravishran th'Zoarhi, but he prefers to be known as Thy'lek Shran, his home-culture name (although "Thy'lek" is apparently Aenar translation of the original). The character Kanshent Shelav, from a highly traditionalist branch of her clan, insists on using that, her native Dreshna name, even though Andoria officially registers her by her Imperial name, Trenkanshent sh’Lavan. Her cousin answers just as readily to Aranthanien ch’Revash as to Thanien Cherev. The four gender suffixes are th', sh', zh' or ch'. For convenience, Andorians take a shorter familiar name (e.g. Thirishar ch'Thane, Sessethantis zh'Cheen and Kellarasana zh'Faila are Shar, Thantis and Kell (or Sana for her Mirror counterpart, apparently). An additional prefix for an outsider adopted into an Andorian clan was recently introduced when Bashir got it slapped onto his name. He's not using it, but I guess the Andorian registry is. As for which of the four parents' clan names is used, it appears to be the zhavey's, which would make sense given the importance placed on the zhavey-child bond and the strong implication that Andorian traditional family structure is matriarchal. I like to speculate that Pava Ek'Noor sh'Aqabaa's name (since she graduated to novels and got a novel 'verse name, that is) contains the Ek'Noor (remembering that Noor was her mother's name) because she didn't, for whatever reason, take the zhavey's name, and her Imperial Name still needs it in there. Andorians like sibilants. Dear Uzaveh, do they like sibilants. President Thelian's full name is a crime for which someone will answer, in this life or the next. Benzites: As heard on screen, a single name, almost always two syllables and with hard consonants. Examples include Cardok, Veldon, Linzner, Salmak, Mendon. They're industrious, you see? Can't have ethereal, wishy-washy names. Betazoids: Sexual and gender distinction. Male names are usually single-syllable (Cort, Tam, Sark, Hent, Ven), occasionally two, while female names are multi-syllabic (sometimes two but more commonly three or four) and tend to - here we go again - end in "a" (Lwaxana, Nerissa, Damira). In this case I let them have it, and don't cry translator. Surnames commonly end in "n" (Enaren, Kaldarren, Povron, Okalan, Tevren) or "x" (Grax, Mryax, Xerix, Xerx). Betelgeusian: They almost always have a selection of the following: an "uu" sound, an "i" sound, a "t" sound, and an apostrophe. E.g. Kuu'iut, Uuvu'it, Hru'uith, Chi'iot. They have two names, most of them anyway. Bolians: Bolian names are short, almost never more than two syllables, and quite often only one. Some use surnames (which are indistinguishable from given names), but most don't. This is likely due to cultural/national differences; the implication seems to be that Bolians have multiple national identities, like humans. Examples: Chell, Min Zife, Gom, Frnats, Zim Brott, Nea, Sovan, Rixx, Bor Loxx. Breen: In private, names are diverse. In public and official business, as everyone is equal and names might otherwise reveal your home culture and threaten your status as an unknown strictly merit-defined piece in the Breen machine, everyone has a mono-syllable name that is, apparently, often a reflection of the real name; Deshinar Tibbonel is "Nar". Chelons: Chelon names have lots of short, sharp syllables that sound like wet clicks and snaps - "i" and "t" are common (e.g. Rinsit, Latanum, Simmerith, Jetanien, Miltakka). They're from a swamp world and they have beaks. Coridanites: Coridanite names very frequently end in a "v". The "ev" sound is particularly common (e.g. Lekev, Kalev, Chulev); another common ending is "g" (e.g. Seareg, Yoralig). The emphasis always seems to be on the first syllable, and family names are rare. Damiani: Damiani names come in two parts. The first, the family name, features two syllables separated by an apostrophe. The given name is a letter (the only truly individual part, apparently), followed by another apostrophe and ullh, ullho or ullhy depending on sex. Examples include Ra'ch B'ullhy (female), Je'tran T'ullh (male) and Ne'al G'ullho (the third sex). Efrosians: Efrosians tend to use a "Ra-" prefix on the surname (Ra-Yalix, Xin Ra-Havreii, Ra-Ghoratreii, Satlin Ra-Graveness), but not always. Ni- and Hu' prefixes have been see as well (e.g. Ni-Jalikreii, Fellen Ni-Yaleii, Hu'Ghrovlatrei). A classic Efrosian name is "(prefix)-(something)eii". Gnalish: A first name of one or two syllables, a surname of at least three. Examples include Sar Antillea, Phigus Simenon, Qur Qontallium, Ganris Phrebington, and Gorus Gelemingar. Grazerite: Grazerite names, naturally enough, follow the formula established onscreen by Jaresh-Inyo; two names joined by a hyphen (e.g. Severn-Anyar, Torvis-Urzon, Lonam-Arja, Amster-Iber). They sound ponderous (bovine) and each of the names is typically two syllables long, very occasionally one. The first name is shared between siblings or herd members - Jaresh-Inyo's brother is Jaresh-Uryad. Hermats: Hermats, of course, have a name followed by a number (e.g. Burgoyne 172, Dogayn 418 or Rulan 12). Note that the highest number we've seen, almost twice as high as the next – in the 800s – was held by their representative to the Federation Council, suggesting perhaps that prestige comes from a long-enduring line. Several other Federation races hold the old nobility or established families in esteem (see: Andorians, Betazoids, Rigelians). Manraloth: They like throaty sounds and also love the “ae” sound. Nasat: Among the Nasats, names are letter-number-shell colour, e.g. P8 Blue, Z4 Blue, C29 Green or V1 Red. These are actually shortened versions of longer designations (strings of numbers and letters) with shell colour added on. Rhaandarites: Rhaandarite names always seem to have an "aa" sound (e.g. Gaanth, Haarv, Vaylin Zaand, Laarin Andos). Romulans: An interesting case. On TV, they had one name except when they had two. Apparently, and sensibly enough, Romulans are referred to in public by a family or clan name - but not always (see Valdore, further on). Alidar Jarok, Kimora Cretak. D' and N' are common Romulan prefixes, the former suggestive of importance or "greatness", the latter apparently held over from the te-Vikram (the super-tribal super-violent culture that ended up accidentally swept up in the exodus). The Rihannsu naming system is used sometimes, just as the Rihannsu language is used consistently. Admiral Valdore is Valdore i'Kaleh tr'Ihaimehn, more commonly "Valdore" (not "Ihaimehn" as we might expect). There's also a private, personal name in many instances (Rihannsu fourth name). Overall, Romulans like the "k" sound, particularly at the end of the family name. Cretak, Jarok, Vreenak, etc. Tellarites: Tellarites have three names, usually of one or two syllables. The middle name is non-capitalized, probably a connective, and appears to be chosen from a relatively small pool. Examples include Bera chim Gleer, Bersh glov Mog, and Mor glasch Tev. Typically, they're referred to by the final name, which is shared among close family members (Rif jav Balkar and Sagar bav Balkar are a married couple). Thallonians: They often use the honorific "Si" between their first and family names (Zoran Si Verdin, Jang Si Naran, etc.) Royal Thallonian Si Cwan appears to use the honorific itself as his first name. Tholians: Almost always their names end in "ene"; examples include Tezrene, Yilskene and Kasrene. The few exceptions appear to be from the lower castes like the technicians; the higher-ranking politicians, warriors, diplomats, etc., are rarely without the "ene". Triexians: Triexians have two names often connected by "na" (e.g. Krelis na Then, Arex na Eth, Ferin na Yoth), or sometimes "ko", as in Nexa ko Tor. The first name appears to be the one used formally. The first name is almost always two syllables, the final name a single syllable. The Triexians' Edoan cousins seem to have only a single name. Speculation: whatever it was that saw these two becoming separate races/cultures had to do with different attitudes toward family identity or position within a wider social hierarchy - I wonder if Edoans are to Triexians what Americans were to British? Tzenkethi: We know this one, of course. Their naming conventions involve four segments - a given name, the individual’s job description, their echelon within it, and their level of accomplishment within that echelon. The Tzenkethi Coalition’s initial ambassador to the Typhon Pact, for instance, was Alizome Tor Fel-A, with “tor” indicating a position as special agent to the Autarch, “fel” being her membership in the “problem-solver” echelon, and A indicating the second-highest proficiency in that role (but AA ratings are extremely rare). The "z" sound is very common in Tzenkethi individual names. Maybe at some point I'll hunt down all the name segments we've gotten so far; e.g. "Rej" is the Autarch. If Barclay ever visits the Coalition, he's going to get lynched. Zakdorn: Zakdorn possess both a given name and a surname, the latter almost always longer than the former. The surname is choppy and tends to feature "k" sounds, yet is also oddly melodic. E.g. Koll Azernal, Klim Dokachin, Myk Bunkrep, Virum Kalnota, Rujat Suwadi, Gruhn Helkara.