Compressing Space Time into an Hour Glass

Discussion in 'Science and Technology' started by Dryson, Feb 12, 2019.

  1. Asbo Zaprudder

    Asbo Zaprudder Vice Admiral Admiral

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  2. Dryson

    Dryson Fleet Captain Fleet Captain

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    Actually the transfer of electrons between iron and other metallic based atoms wouldnt speed up as a ship accelerated to FTL and faster as there isnt a process present that is speeding the sharing of electrons up. The ship itself would be encountering trillions and trillions of metallic atoms in a planck second passing electrons back and forth that would increase the mass of the ship exponetially.

    The process is similar to driving very fast passed stores along a street. The stores and the interactions taking place inside and around the stores are all blurred but are still functioning at their normal speed.

    The same is true with the ship traveling faster and faster. Electrons are still being passed between other atoms and do not feel the effect of the ship traveling at the speed of light.

    There has to be a material composition that would deflect electrons passing between metallic atoms out of the way of the starship just enough to create a small pocket of space around the ship that has zero too almost zero electrons passing back and forth between metallic based atoms.
     
  3. Dryson

    Dryson Fleet Captain Fleet Captain

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    Aluminum is the best choice from the base elements to make the hull for our starship from because it does not share or take electrons from other metallic atoms.

    I know what you are going to say " the amount of aluminum needed for the hull of a starship would be immense and costly."

    Not really, A study, published in February 2016, discovered a new type of ice crystal that is super-lightweight, Ice 7.

    In the new type of ice, called Ice Seven (Ice VII), water molecules form an interlocking cage-like structure, called a clathrate.

    These molecules are thought to arrange themselves in this way at extreme pressures that cause the molecules to expand.

    https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/fb-5367655/WHAT-STRANGE-ICE-SEVEN-DEEP-ICY.html

    If the molecules within aluminum can be arranged to form interlocking cages similar to Ice 7 then a new super-lightweight yet dense and very strong aluminum can be created. With Aluminum - 7, homage to Ice 7, being basically compacted layers of aluminum molecules that aluminum created would very strong and still flexible, similar to how thousands of layers of steel are folded into the making of a Samurai sword. Aluminum - 7 would create a very lightweight hull along with lightweight and strong internal structural bracing for a starship to travel close to the speed of light.

    More experiments using the Ice-7 manufacturing process needs to be conducted to determine if elements can create new alloys due to extreme pressure aligning their molecules into interlocking cage-like structures.

    http://www.idc-online.com/technical_references/pdfs/chemical_engineering/Ice_seven.pdf
     
  4. Asbo Zaprudder

    Asbo Zaprudder Vice Admiral Admiral

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    You are Andy Kaufman and I claim my ten dollars.
     
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  5. StarCruiser

    StarCruiser Captain Captain

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    Anyone who gives quotes from the "Daily Fail" needs to rethink their life...
     
  6. Dryson

    Dryson Fleet Captain Fleet Captain

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    https://news.stanford.edu/2017/05/25/high-pressure-key-lighter-stronger-metal-alloys/

    Very good article regarding the use of pressure to compress alloys together.

    One interesting section.
    Stable configuration
    Interestingly, the alloy retains an HCP structure even after the pressure is removed. “Most of the time, when you take the pressure away, the atoms snap back to their previous configuration.
    If a black hole compresses the atoms that it consumes together based on a similar concept discussed in the the article above and there is a point at which the pressure inside of a black hole lessens, then shouldn't the atoms in the black hole snap back to their previous configuration all at once creating a Big Bang?
     
  7. Dryson

    Dryson Fleet Captain Fleet Captain

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  8. Asbo Zaprudder

    Asbo Zaprudder Vice Admiral Admiral

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    Loop quantum gravity theory does predict that black holes might turn into white holes.

    https://physics.aps.org/articles/v11/127

    By the way, aluminium can exchange electrons with other metals -- it's a conductor of electricity -- although the surface oxidation layer makes it tricky to establish a good circuit.
     
  9. StarCruiser

    StarCruiser Captain Captain

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    ^ Yep - the fact that (too many) houses were built in the 1970's USA with aluminum (aluminium for folks in the UK) wiring would seem to confirm that fact...
     
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  10. Dryson

    Dryson Fleet Captain Fleet Captain

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    https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2010/09/metal-smasher-makes-aluminum-strong-steel

    To find out why the alloy had gotten so much stronger, the team examined samples using a technique called atom probe tomography. Resembling a combination of an electron microscope and a CT scanner, the method showed that HPT had deformed the lattice of atoms in the alloy into an unprecedented arrangement. Instead of the normal structure found in the conventional metal, HPT had created what the researchers call a hierarchical nanostructure: the size of the aluminum grains was reduced, and the zinc and magnesium atoms clustered together in groups of various sizes, depending on whether they were located inside the aluminum grains or on the edges

     
  11. Dryson

    Dryson Fleet Captain Fleet Captain

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    https://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html


    How fast do electrons move?

    As fast as you can get them going! Well not quite. One of the facts of life discovered in the 20th century is that the speed of light (300,000 kilometers per second) is the ultimate speed limit. As you add energy to the electron, it will go faster, but as you get it to go close to the speed of light, you find that you have to add even more energy just to bump it a bit faster. For example, with just over 220,000 eV (which stands for a convenient unit of energy called the "electron-volt"), you can get the electron up to 90% of the speed of light. But to get it to 99.9% (just another 9.9%), you need a total of over 11 million eV! One way of looking at this is that the electron gets "heavier" (more massive) as it goes ever faster. So it's harder to push it faster. At Jefferson Lab, a typical energy for the electrons in the beam is 4 GeV which is 4 billion eV. That means the electron is traveling at 99.9999992% of the speed of light. Close but still not 100%.

    You may wonder how fast the electrons are whizzing around in the atoms around you. A good example (and the most simple to calculate) is the hydrogen atom which is in all our water. A calculation shows that the electron is traveling at about 2,200 kilometers per second. That's less than 1% of the speed of light, but it's fast enough to get it around the Earth in just over 18 seconds. Read up on what happens when nothing can go faster than the speed of light.

    Accelerating the ship to the speed of light is not about accelerating the electrons in the atoms of the starship or the electrons of atoms in space to the speed of light. Accelerating to the speed of light is about reducing the electron transfer between metallic atoms in space and the metallic atoms of the starships hull.

    Travelling closer to the speed of light might add energy too the electron transfer rate within the structure of the starship but the fact is that energy is not being added directed to the electron itself so there still might be a lesser amount of electron transfer in the Hammer Aluminum hull plating that would not increase the mass of the ship.

    The other fact that is relative is that the the electron transfer rate between metallic atoms and the hull plating of the starship remains far below the threshold of adding mass to the ship itself as the electrons are still transferring at their universal rate of speed for metallic atom electron transfer. The ship itself however is moving faster and faster while the electron transfer speed in the hull plating remains relative to the same transfer rate of the Hammer Aluminum. Energy directly added to increase electron transfer rate is not present.

    At any rate we don't want to create more mass in the structure of the starship, not yet at least, We first need to insulate the starship from the electrons of space surrounding the ship from transferring with the structure of the ship.

    Metals tend to lose electrons and non-metals tend to gain electrons, so in reactions involving these two groups, there is electron transfer from the metal to the non-metal.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_transfer

    https://www.westminster.edu/about/community/sim/documents/SElectronTransferBetweenMetals.CALC.pdf

    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/anie.201804557


    Metal‐to‐metal charge transfer (MMCT) describes electron transfer between metal ions, to generate valence isomers with markedly different electronic configurations. In particular, MMCT changes the spin states of single‐metal sites and the coupling interactions between them, while also changing the symmetry in charge distribution. The result is a drastic change in both magnetic and electric properties of the affected material. Moreover, MMCT causes significant variation in bond length and absorption spectra, and induces unusual thermal expansion and photochromic behavior. Thus, materials demonstrating MMCT in response to external stimuli are excellent candidates for switchable multifunctional devices with synergistic responses. In this Minireview, recent progress in utilizing MMCT units as actuators to tune magnetic, electric, thermal expansion, and photochromic properties in cyanide‐bridged systems is highlighted, and emphasis is given to the remaining challenges and future perspectives in the field.

    I think the process that we are wanting to look at is Outer sphere and Inner Sphere Electron Transfer that refers to an electron transfer (ET) event that occurs between chemical species that remain separate and intact before, during, and after the ET event. In contrast, for inner sphere electron transfer the participating redox sites undergoing ET become connected by a chemical bridge.

    We want to keep the Inner Sphere or the structure of the starships hull transferring electrons at a normal rate to keep the structure metal intact. Its the Outer Sphere or the bounce of the electron before crossing the connected bridge, that we will need to block. The Outer Sphere would be considered the electrons transferred from metallic atoms in space to the ships structural metal.

    In outer sphere redox reactions no bonds are formed or broken; only an electron transfer (ET) takes place.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_theory

    The Mass of an Ion
    The electrons have so little mass compared to the rest of the atom that their masses can be ignored. So, the molar masses of Fe and of Fe³⁺ are the same:55.845 g/mol. The mass of Fe³⁺ in 1 mol of compound depends on the formula of the compound. For example, 1 mol of Fe(NO₃)₃ contains 1 mol of Fe³⁺ ions (55.845 g).

    Therefore blocking the number of Ions transferred between metals during electron transfer is crucial.
     
  12. Asbo Zaprudder

    Asbo Zaprudder Vice Admiral Admiral

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  13. Dryson

    Dryson Fleet Captain Fleet Captain

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2373407/

    Surface-induced conductivity of hydrogen-terminated, undoped diamond in electrolyte solutions is another unique property which has attracted significant attention in recent years (Landstrass & Ravi 1998). It is generated by ‘transfer doping’ of hydrogen-terminated diamond immersed into the electrolyte solution. The phrase ‘transfer doping’ indicates that the surface conductivity in diamond arises from missing valence-band electrons as such electrons ‘transfer’ into the electrolyte.

    Adding crushed diamond atoms into the Hammered Aluminum structural and hull plating should help keep the transfer of electrons from space based atoms from transferring to the hammered aluminum altogether.

    Electrolyte plays a key role in transporting the positive lithium ions between the cathode and anode. High purityelectrolytes are a core component of li-ion batteries. The most commonly used electrolyte is comprised of lithium salt, such as LiPF6 in an organic solution.

    The electrons transferred into an electrolyte would then be transferred to another section where the electrons are used to generate power needs for the ship that would be constantly consumed by the ships electrical needs.
     
  14. Asbo Zaprudder

    Asbo Zaprudder Vice Admiral Admiral

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    Conservation of energy says "no".
     
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  15. Santaman

    Santaman Vice Admiral Admiral

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    ^^ another dream crushed!:p
     
  16. Asbo Zaprudder

    Asbo Zaprudder Vice Admiral Admiral

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    It is possible to extract electrical energy from motion relative to a magnetic field but you end up slowing down your apparatus relative to that field. Similarly, you can expend electrical energy to accelerate relative to an external magnetic field. However, modelling the interplanetary medium as an electrolyte is not going to be very fruitful - it is the domain of plasma physics.
     
  17. Dryson

    Dryson Fleet Captain Fleet Captain

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    We know that electrons cannot reach the speed of light when transferring between atoms can obtain a velocity of 99.9999% the speed of light. Scientists have determined that right after the Big Bang, particles were accelerating away from the Big Bang faster than the speed of light but then gain massed.

    Therefore the point of .0001% after the Big Bang took place, when particles were accelerating faster than the speed of light is most likely the region of space-time where the particles gained mass and began to slow down.

    If you look at the percentage of velocities of electrons that transfer between like atoms and different atoms but are still in the same class of atoms such as metallic atoms we can see when exactly after the Big Bang each atom gained its mass.

    The main fact that needs looked into is the point at which the Higgs-Boson, the particle that gives atoms their, mass came into being.

    How fast do electrons move?

    As fast as you can get them going! Well not quite. One of the facts of life discovered in the 20th century is that the speed of light (300,000 kilometers per second) is the ultimate speed limit. As you add energy to the electron, it will go faster, but as you get it to go close to the speed of light, you find that you have to add even more energy just to bump it a bit faster. For example, with just over 220,000 eV (which stands for a convenient unit of energy called the "electron-volt"), you can get the electron up to 90% of the speed of light. But to get it to 99.9% (just another 9.9%), you need a total of over 11 million eV! One way of looking at this is that the electron gets "heavier" (more massive) as it goes ever faster. So it's harder to push it faster. At Jefferson Lab, a typical energy for the electrons in the beam is 4 GeV which is 4 billion eV. That means the electron is traveling at 99.9999992% of the speed of light. Close but still not 100%.

    You may wonder how fast the electrons are whizzing around in the atoms around you. A good example (and the most simple to calculate) is the
    hydrogen atom which is in all our water. A calculation shows that the electron is traveling at about 2,200 kilometers per second. That's less than 1% of the speed of light, but it's fast enough to get it around the Earth in just over 18 seconds. Read up on what happens when nothing can go faster than the speed of light.

    https://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html

    The Higgs-Boson is a particle with mass and therefore cannot reach the speed of light yet it gives particles their mass rather the Higgs boson does not technically give other particles mass. More precisely, the particle is a quantized manifestation of a field (the Higgs field) that generates mass through its interaction with other particles.

    A quantized field that had to be present prior to the Big Bang and is part of another quantized field of interactions. One bridge leading to another bridge in essence that allowed particles in space to travel across gaining energy and mass to become atoms.

    The Higgs-Boson would have to be able to direct atoms across the lower bridge and then onto its bridge putting the Higgs-Boson somewhere in the 99.9999993 to 99.9999997% of the speed of light with the lower bridge leading to the Higgs-Boson at 99.9999998 to 99.9999999% the speed of light. Prior to the Big Bang, Space-time that is our Universe in fact did travel faster than the speed of light. Space therefore has to be its own particle that travels faster than the speed of light.

    If space wasn't its own particle or fields interacting with other fields traveling faster than the speed of light, then light would occupy all points in space at once creating a non stop sunny day as photons would reach their destinations instantly.

    The photon cannot escape the gravitational pull of a black hole meaning that a black hole is functioning at faster than the speed of light internally, otherwise the light photon would be able to escape the black hole, rather it would simply pass through the black hole as light photons do not orbit celestial objects such as planets.

    The field of space itself much like the Higg's fields that bridges interactions between particles must therefore bridge fields of interactions between the Higg's - Boson that allows the Higgs field to be come a bridge itself.

    Space therefore travels faster than the speed of light or the field of space travels faster than the speed of light. There has to be field though that regulates space itself to create a bottle neck if you will, or the point that the grains of sand, the fields comprising space itself in one bulb that actually compresses the field of space into time or a measurable distance that smaller particles interact with each other at the bottle neck to create other fields that allow larger particles derived from space being compressed to have mass added to them that emerge into the lower bulb as particles with mass and then into atoms.

    The point at which the field of space is being compressed along with the lower bridges leading up to the Higgs-Boson would all take place in the narrow neck of the hour glass. Each incremental bridge being closer to opening of the narrow neck that is compressing the fields of space from the top bulb or basically space time within space time.
     
  18. StarCruiser

    StarCruiser Captain Captain

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    Blink blink.... ¿Que?
     
  19. Santaman

    Santaman Vice Admiral Admiral

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    I see it as a heroic attempt to try and combine every theory he stumbles upon in one go, and no, the laws of physics do not play a role in it...
     
  20. Asbo Zaprudder

    Asbo Zaprudder Vice Admiral Admiral

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    The language of physics is mathematics, not gibberish. No falsifiable predictions are made so it's not science.