As we all know, the creators of Star Trek: The Original Series eventually decided on an official, though never canonical warp seed scale, and the creators of Star Trek: The Next Generation created a different warp speed scale. The Making of Star Trek Stephen E. Whitfield & Gene Roddenberry, 1968, Part II: An Official Biography of a Ship and its Crew, Chapter 2. The U.S.S. Enterprise, says: "Warp Factor One is the speed of light. Warp Factor Three is 24 times the speed of light. Maximum safe cruising speed of the Enterprise is Warp Factor Six, or 216 tines the speed of light. At Warp Factor Eight (512 times the speed of light) the ship's structue begins to show considerable strain due to theinability of the ships field mechanisms to compensate. Warp Factor Six is therefore exceeded only in instances of extreme emergencey." I believe that the later editions of the TOS writer's guide also say something similiar. I note that one is the cube of one, 216 is the cube of six, and 512 is the cube of eight. So the speed of a warp factor can be deduced to be the speed of light mulitpiled by the cube of the warp factor. So warp factor 1 should be 1 times the speed of light, warp factor 2 should be 8 times the speed of light, warp factor 3 should be 27 times the speed of light (and not the 24 which is written), warp factor 4 should be 64 times the speed of light, warp factor 5 should be 125 times the speed of light, warp factor 6 should be 216 times the speed of light, warp factor 7 should be 343 times the speed of light, warp factor 8 should be 512 times the speed of light, warp factor 9 should be 729 times the speed of light, warp factor 10 should be 1,000 times the speed of light, and so on. And if the creators of TOS were careful about doing the math, they would have designed the warp scale to agree with the travel distances, warp speeds, and travel times in previous episodes, and they would have been careful to make the travel distances, warp speeds, and travel times in following episodes agree with the warp scale. What did people know about what Isaac Asimov called "galactography", the geography of the Milky Way Galaxy, back inthe 1960s? Astronomers knew a lot, and most people knew a lot less. Back in the 1960s, educated people should have known three different terms for three vastly different scales of space. 1) The Solar System in particular, or a star system in general; 2) The Galaxy in particular, or a galaxy in general. 3) The Universe, all of outer space and every object in it. And many people, then and now, often confuse star systems with galaxies, or confuse a galaxy with the entire universe. And possibly some people even confuse star system with universe. Fortunately, there are astronomers, and even ordinary people, who know a lot more about astronomy than the average person. They may be a tiny proportion of people, possibly about one in a thousand, and so the USA shold have many thousands of men, women, and children who are interested in astronomy and/or science fiction and so have learned a lot more about astronomy than the average person. I happen to have a copy of Exploration of the Universe Brief Editon, George Abell, 1964, 1969, as an example of the type of information available to the public in the 1960s. Chapter 19 describes the Milky Way Galaxy The disc of the galaxy is descried as being about 100,000 light years (LY) in diameter, and the sun is described as being about 10,000 parsecs or about LY from the center of the galaxy. The galaxic disc is described as being flat, but the globular star clusters and many isolated stars are thinly scattered in a more or less spheroidal halo around the galaxy. Chapter 16, The stars in general, section 16.1, says that in the neighborhood of the sun the average separation between stars is about 2.1 parsecs. about 2.1 parsecs equals about 6.8 light years. So if the average separation between nearby stars is about 6.8 light years, the usual minimum possible distance for an interstellar voyage or communication should be 6.8 light years, and an interstellar voyage or message could travel a much longer distance than that. So if a message or ship travels an interstellar distance in a fraction of an Earth year, the speed of travel will equal the distance in light years, usually at least 6.8 LY, divided by the fraction of a year's time the trip takes. If a starship or a subspace message travels 100 light years in 0.1 year, the speed should be 1,000 times the speed of light, for example. And if the galatic disc is about 100,000 LY in diameter, and the average separation of stars is about 6.8 LY, the galactic disc should be about 14,706 stars wide. And that means that if two voyages (or two interstellar messages) are made at the same speed within the galactic disc, their durations can only differ by about 14,706 times. So if any interestllar voyage of at least about 6.8 LY takes only one second, the longest possible interstellar voyage within the galactic disc at the same speed would take only about 14,706 seconds, or about 4.08 hours, or about 0.17 days. And if a voyage of 100,000 LY from one edge side of the galactic disc to the opposite edge takes 100 years, at a speed 1,000 times the speed of light, the shortest possible voyage of about 6.8 LY at that same speed of 1,000 times the speed of light will take at least 0.0068 years, or at least 2.4837 days. And the same is true about interstellar signals and messages. If they travel at the same speed, the longest possible trip within the galactic disc will take about 14,706 times as long as a trip between close neighboring stars. In chapter 19, section 19.3, it is calculated that the mass of the galaxy is approximately two hundred billion or 200,000,000,000 times the mass of the sun. "Presumably, mostof the material of the Galaxy is in the form of stars. If the mass of the sun is taken as average, we find that the Galaxy contains some hundreds of billions of stars." Many astronomy books contain tables and lists. Two in Exploration of the Universe are typical of most astronomy books. Appendix 12 The nearest stars, and Appendix 13 the twenty brightest stars. Appendix 12 lists all of the then kown single and multiple star systems within 5 parsecs (16.307 LY) of the Sun. Many of them have names familiar in science fiction, from stories set on planets of the nearst stars: Alpha Centauri, Barnard's Star, Wolf 359, Sirius, 61 Cygni, Procyon, Epsilon Indi, Tau Ceti, 40 Eridani, etc. Appendix 13 lists the twenty brightest stars as seen from Earth. Some of them are relatively nearby stars which seem bright from Earth because they are actually extremely luminous. The stars which appear very bright because they are very near include the nearest star, Alpha Centauri,1.31 parsecs distant, the fifth closest star, Sirius, 2.7 parsecs distant, Procyon 3.5 parsecs distant, Altair 5.1 parsecs distant, and Vega 8.0 parsecs distant. The stars on the 20 brightest list which are intrinsically the most luminous are Deneb, 430 parsecs away, Rigel ,250 parsecs distant, and Betelguese, 150 parsecs distant. And other astronomy books available at the time also had tables listing the nearest stars and/or the stars appeaingr brightest as seen from Earth. Clearly there is a vast range of luminosity and distance among the stars which are most famous. And there should be billions of stars in our galaxy for each star with a name familiar to the average person. So the odds against some sort of space voyage or "star trek" often going to stars with famous names would be "astronomical". So in following posts I will discuss various examples of the speeds of starships and subspace radio in TOS.