By definition, the Bridge is an area of the ship where observation of the ship and its surroundings, and therefore maneuvering decisions, can take place. On a submarine, the Bridge might not be the primary control area, it is just the one located high in the ship, and sometimes the ship would be controlled from another place. Even in TOS multiple locations to control the ship were shown, some in more hidden locations, apparently. I feel that Star Trek fans often try to overthink this with justification of shielding, replaceable Bridge Modules, etc, all of which may be true, but... The point is that the Control Room on Deck 1 is called the "Bridge" precisely BECAUSE OF WHERE IT IS. The main control room would not need to be near the outside of the ship because of sensors, but, if that room were not near the outside of the ship, in the traditional location of a Bridge, it should not be called that. Seems pretty simple reasoning to me.