One of the elements of Star Trek that was there from the beginning was that humanity - although technologically and culturally more advanced - remained essentially identical to today on a fundamental level. As time has gone on, this central conception of Trek has seemed more and more...well...quaint, given conceptions in written science fiction, and even some real world technological advances, increasingly suggest much more of a transhuman/posthuman future, where what it means to be "human" is far murkier. A couple of examples: In the Star Trek universe, it is basically canonical that humans mostly avoid genetic modification due to the bad precedent of the Eugenics Wars. By the time of the 24th Century, this seems to have weakened to some degree, with some genetic disorders apparently being cured through gene therapy, but the use is extremely limited. More surprisingly, other races - even ones who one would presume would have little in the way of taboos, like the Romulans and Cardassians - also don't seem to genetically modify their populace. Given the first steps in terms of gene therapy have already been approved by the FDA, and CRISPR-edited zygotes have come to term in China, the lack of engagement with this seems strange. While human lifespans increased steadily during the Trek timeline (from about 100 years in Enterprise to about 120 by the 24th century) no "cure" for the aging process has been discovered in the Federation. While we don't know if such a cure is possible, the first anti-aging drug arguably already exists. Another area where Trek seems quaint these days is how limited computers - and artificial intelligence in general - is. There are of course examples of self-aware machine intelligence, like Data and the Doctor. But they are fundamentally not shown as being superior in any way to humanity in terms of capabilities. This seems pretty unlikely, given Moore's Law suggests that once computers actually reach parity with human cognition they will rapidly exceed human ability by orders of magnitude, potentially resulting in an "AI god" type phenomena. Even setting this aside, due to the historic limitations of Trek computers going all the way back to TOS, they seem "dumb" even for lacking self-awareness. For example. the computer should be able to chart a path through an asteroid field much better than a human could ever do, due to the ability to think faster than a human and consider data outside of a human's field of vision. Another common scenario considered in science fiction regarding a transhuman future is "mind uploading" as a way to cheat death. Trek did actually touch on this a little bit, in the TNG episodes The Schizoid Man and Inheritance. However, as is typically the case in Star Trek, tech is treated as some one-off thing which is never really discussed again. Related to this, as I've noted in the past, is that not only is there no real sense of forward motion in humans, there's also none in any other races. Basically there are only three kinds of aliens in Star Trek: Pre-warp primitives, functional equals, and godlike energy beings. We have never really met alien races who have had technology for tens of thousands to millions of years, who have technological abilities which seem to be similar to magic for us. Now, there are two ways to consider Trek's avoidance of transhumanism. On the plus side, one can argue that since Trek is meant to be popular TV (not high-minded hard science-fiction) it has to have relatable characters. This means that we need to have the protagonists rooted in a world we can comprehend without much infodump exposition. Understanding the motivations that drive a human who has no fear of dying - for example, may simply be beyond the casual viewing audience. On the other hand, there is an argument that all good science fiction engages with the issues of the day. Today there is a lot more apprehension about what the future holds in terms of AI and genetic augmentation than there was in decades in the past. Hence largely avoiding these areas means that Trek is not engaging as fully with the zeitgeist of the times as possible.