It doesn't matter what species they are. Only the planet that they were born and lived on. If a human, for example, is born and raised on a non-Federation world (such as New Sydney from "Prodigal Daughter"), they are not Federation citizens. Also, I believe Worf is considered a citizen of the Federation, because he was legally adopted by a human couple and raised on a Federation member world. Not all humans were born and lived on Earth; not all Andorians are from Andor; not all Klingons are from Qo'noS; etc. I'd say yes, because Eddington once said that the Maquis were planning to do exactly that.