Why not? 29th century temporal sensors seem to be able to detect temporal events native to that era, such as the alternate 2390 Harry Kim's intervention in "Timeless".
But that was time travel that occurred in only one timeline - one part of it to another part of it.
The Abramsverse, on the other hand, is entirely separate and distinct. The black hole that took Nero and Spock there was strictly one-way. It transmitted no information back to the regular timeline. That's why there's no way the timecops could possibly know about it.