The TMP set is covered with what I'd call Colegraphs, as designed by Lee Cole and other members of the Art Dept., who did the instrumentation and a lot of the signage for the film. The TMP set is probably unique in that at least SOME though was given to what the controls were or would actually be. The weapons console is the only one we get any good look at (in TMP and TWOK), but you can see that there's some thought given to how it works.
Diagram of TORP LOAD STATUS display. The red and blue indicators light up as the sliders (next image) are pushed up on the PHOTON TORPEDO panel. (In TWOK they pulled them DOWN, which actually shuts off the console above.)
Diagram of PHOTON TORPEDO arming controls. At top are four sliders for setting the torpedo energy levels. Some of the labeling is not clearly visible and thus indicated by ???. The ON and OFF buttons were practical switches on the console face, painted black, that allowed the actor to turn on this part of the console.
Diagram of PHASER CHARGING controls. At top are four sliders for setting the power levels, and at bottom right are four mechanical push buttons for transferring warp power.
Diagram of FIRE CONTROL controls. At top left are buttons for firing phasers in the indicated direction, and at lower right are hexagonal buttons for firing torpedoes. One of the labels is not clearly visible and thus indicated by ???
Diagram of DEFLECTOR SCREEN controls. The labels for the square blue lights appear to be in jokes for the art department, with DMAL for Dan Maltese, MINR for Mike Minor, LCLE for Lee Cole and SBAC for Rick Sternbach. The text labels for the hexagonal buttons at lower right are not clearly visible in any references found to date.
Finally, here's a photo of half-scale console built for insert shots of graphics appearing on the large display (center). You can see how the various panels fit on it. I didn't bother drawing up the COMPTR panel which is just a bank of "accordion" buttons.
Here's one more for ya to stew on...
From the HELM. Diagram of VELOCITY controls to the right of the manual throttle.
PULSAR CO-ORD appears to be some readout to show that certain pulsars have been triangulated upon in order to know the ship's current position via trig. I smell Jesco Von Puttkamer
all over this...
Sliders are used to set the ship's velocity at WARP or IMPULSE. It looks like the number actually indicates the next major tick mark. Odd.
The DOPPLER COMP would seem to show how much doppler compensation is required for a given velocity. These probably light up depending on the ship's velocity.