Actually, you're right - that door (the one outside in the hallway, right?) does
open up directly into space! Or - at least it's some kind of docking port or something. The CGI model clearly shows a corresponding hatch there. And that's yet another piece in the puzzle in establishing that Kelvin's bridge doesn't match up to the windows on the front of the module.
As much as we'd like to believe it (and as I did before today), the windows on the front the the bridge module are not windows into the bridge. Based on all the evidence, the windows have to be either:
-Some kind of technical feature. Maybe part of the complex 3D imaging system used to project the viewscreens?
-Windows of some other compartment. Maybe a briefing room or the captain's ready room?