Where I disagree is the allegation that transporting does no DNA damage. It absolutely should. No confinement beam is going t be 100% perfect and some of your information is going to leak away in transit - we have seen this to be a danger in may TNG era episodes.
causes DNA damage. Naturally the transporter would, too. However, the fact that there are trillions of copies of DNA in your body means that there's plenty of redundancy, and damage can be repaired if it is not too extensive. By "does no DNA damage", they mean "won't turn you into a salamander".
This also covers things like good/evil Kirk or Thomas Riker where the transporter was somehow able to add 50%+ replicated material to the transportee and still have them live through outside intervention.
You mean 100%. If only 50% were added, there would be an extra half-a-Kirk or half-a-Riker to go with our regular Kirk and Riker.
Yes - they've done tests recently to show that exercise does DNA damage but you can reduce it if you eat cress beforehand. Strange but true. So Geordi's comments should be viewed in a wider context perhaps.
I did mean 50% because neither Kirk had the correct DNA so nice Kirk had half his DNA missing or switched on incorrectly - that must mean that 50% is of his DNA was doubled up i.e. replicated incorrectly (on my theory at least) with the second Kirk getting a different 50% doubled up through replication. With Thomas Riker it's harder to tell since they were genetically exact at the point of creation so it's possible that one was entirely replicated. Which one was always a matter for debate.
I've done a Star Trek/Babylon 5 cross-over comic set around the time of TMP so I figured in for a penny and I'll use my own pet theory to explain transporter issues in the story.
Some transporters do use wormholes - the problem there is that the energy required to punch a hole through space at will would most likely be too great for ships - even warp engines can only bend space. I'm not overly familiar with the science of subspace transporting but I don't see how it could work any differently to normal transporting just using subspace instead of a pocket dimension?