As for Pulaski being Bones-like. Other than transporter-phobia thing, I never really got the sense that she was too similar. She is a very atypical but passionate Starfleet officer, but I felt that's what TNG needed for the dynamic as there wasn't someone like that. That's how I felt about Ro's introduction being a big plus for the show.
I am of the view that having somebody come in as an 'outsider' to the clique of the Enterprise command crew was refreshing. She might have had certain broad
similarities to Bones (Diana Muldaur herself acknowledges this was intentional), but the concept of a character who basically comes in from the outside and rubs everyone up the wrong way isn't necessarily a bad thing. I felt it created that sense of conflict that the writers were always kvetching TNG lacked. Your comparison with Ensign Ro is also very correct.
On the other hand, I think their trying to give her a blatant Bones/Spock thing with Data was a bad move. Data is essentially an innocent, and unlike Spock, where the dynamic was that ol' Pointy Ears would usually give as good as he got by throwing the odd bon mot back Bones' way, the nature of Data's character was such that he would always just sit there and take it while Pulaski verbally cuts him down..... and the audience natually empathized with him for that, making Pulaski look too harsh by comparison.
So the concept of the character had both pros and cons.