I think the Enterprise E would win. It would blow the Vengeance to pieces while watching outdated weapons fire bounce off the advance shields.
I wonder where you get this information from?
The Enterprise E shields did not seem so 'advanced' in Nemesis when a mere section of a romulan vessel's hull struck the E causing damage. It didn't seem so advanced when the Scimitar fired some of her *photon* torpedoes causing a hull breach.
If you watch the way how the Vengence damages the JJ-Enterprise, you can easily see it is far more effective than any photon torpedo.
Show me one example of any 23rd century ship that had significant bulk of its hull desintegrated with mere phaser shots from a 24th century vessel? The only example I can think of is the borg cube in wolf 359 and even then that was sustained fire at a relatively small Excelsior class ship which is one 1/4 the size of the JJ-prise.
Enterprise E = An overrated product of a peaceful starfleet based on old design concepts.