The Enterprise E would win. It would beat the Narada as easily as the Narada beat everything in the reboot. Even if the Vengeance somehow managed to surpass the Narada's weapons and armor, the E's tech could scan and defeat the Vengeance without firing a shot, exploiting some flaw, not to mention regenerative shielding, quantum torpedoes, or the ability to travel faster. If all else fails, the E would warp away, find a weakness within their scans (and find an ailment for the crewman on deck twos stomach ache), and tear the Vengeance apart with a modified system. Technology wins in this fight.