The E should theoretically win, if technological patterns are consistent.
In TNG's "The Emissary" when the D had to deal with an 80-year-old Klingon K'tinga battler cruiser, the concern was never that the ship would harm the Enterprise; indeed, the shots the Klingons did score were described as causing no damage. It was never questioned that the Enterprise could handily destroy the Klingon ship, Picard simply didn't want to have to.
Given the size difference in the Abramsverse, though, one might surmise that technology is proportionally more advanced. OTOH, it might be that Starfleet could always have built such large vessels if they wanted to.
Considering the time line alteration of the destruction of vulcan, reverse engineering the data from the Narada, the difference in political direction Starfleet has taken, involving Khan in the design on ships and weapons, I will go out on a limb that the technlogical patterns will be shifted and not at all relative to what TNG fans see from the Enterprise E.
I remember the Klingon battle cruiser firing on the Enterprise D, to be fair even in its day it would not be much of a threat to the TOS Connie class unless they arrived in packs of 3 which we saw in TOS.
Its not unreasonable to believe the Vengeance could virtually one shot a D7/K'Tinga.