Vengeance verses Enterprise Dee, is like expecting the best world war one fighter plane to take out a modern fifth generation fighter.
It depends on when the technological advances come into play. A Royal Navy ship from 1703 vs. a Royal Navy ship from 1803 would be a close battle, since both ships are wooden sailing ships and cannon technology was about the same.
In contrast, a US Navy ship from 1803 vs. a US Navy ship from 1903 might be a bit more one-sided, since we're talking about a wooden sailing ship vs. a steel ship with steam or diesel power.
So, this begs the question as to how much technology advanced from the 23rd to the 24th centuries.
Keep in mind also the Vengeance didn't manage to destroy the original Enterprise. Even with surprise on its side! Yet that very same Enterprise managed to kill every single person aboard the Excalibur, while engaging another three Constitution-class cruisers! This was before the refit!
FOUL! You're not comparing apples to apples. Vengeance
did not face the TOS Enterprise
. Therefore, Vengeance
did not fight the very same Enterprise that managed to kill the Excalibur
while engaging three other Constitution
-class cruisers. What happened in the Prime universe has absolutely no bearing on the Abramsverse. That's one of the points of this very topic, after all.
Which is more powerful - the Abramsverse Enterprise
or the TOS Enterprise