is larger than Enterprise-E
but is more primitive, even if advanced fro its time. Consider...
can modulate its shields and presumably in the wake of Voyager's return has much improved armor. Even the Enterprise-D demonstrated great versatility in its technology, including a much greater transporter range and an ability to almost re-configure a planet's atmosphere! This vessel is designed to take on Borg cubes and survive, as well as Dominion capital ships and the topline warships of the Klingon and Romulan empires a century later than that of the Vengeance
Keep in mind also the Vengeance
didn't manage to destroy the original Enterprise
. Even with surprise on its side! Yet that very same Enterprise
managed to kill every single person aboard the Excalibur
, while engaging another three Constitution
-class cruisers! This was before the refit!
Given it was essentially designed by a man with little in-depth knowledge of current tech, seems to me likely the Vengeance
's main advantage was simply its size and the sheer amount of power its (no doubt huge) engines generated. But this would be analogous to sending the Japanese WWII cruiser Yamato
to take on a modern USN frigate. Lacking enormous luck, incompetence aboard the frigate, great genius from the cruiser's command, or some combination thereof, the Yamato
would be doomed.