So far as I can recall, we only ever see Federation starships of the 2250s either firing phasers on the Narada or upon one-another (Enterprise and Vengeance). So, no, we have no idea how to compare 23rd Century Abrams Timeline ships' weaponry and defense systems to 24th Century Prime Timeline ships' weaponry and defense systems.
The most we can say is that the Narada, which originated from 2387 of the Prime Timeline as a mining ship, tore damn near every 2258 Abrams Timeline ship she encountered to shreds. We don't know if that's because the standard armaments available to 24th Century mining ships are just that much better than 2258 Abrams Timeline ships', or if it's because the Narada was upgraded with tech that's super-advanced even for the Narada's era.
Exactly. Outside the comic book (which established the Narada had updated Borg tech on it) in the movie Nero was consistently shown as a blue collar "guy" and the Narada was just a mining ship from the future.
That mining ship steamrolled through entire entire armada without a scratch. Even though the thing was huge, it's still just a mining ship.
Meanwhile the Enterprise-E
is basically a top of the line Starfleet cruiser. I think it could easily mow down the oversized spooky Vengeance
from over 100 years ago.
Except that my point is that we don't
know. We don't know if the Narada's armaments were always just that good or if she was upgraded with super-advanced tech even for the 24th Century, and we don't know how 23rd Century Abramsverse tech stacks up to 24th Century Prime tech. We have no idea how they compare, so it's fruitless to speculate.