I pulled some screencaps and marked some of the points of interest.
- The Vulcan refugees have several colony worlds and go by the name "The Confederacy of Surak."
- The Organians seem to be visiting in either a ship or shuttle.
- The Menk appear to have an embassy, but the Valakians may have died out.
- The Risan colony/embassy on Earth in SF is known as the "Risa Hedony," which is pretty funny.
- There are three new ships in spacedock that we haven't seen before. A large single-hulled ship of the Voyager/Nova variety, a medium ship that looks like a smaller half-sized Enterprise (hey, there's one for the small Enterprise crowd), and a very small spherical or tiny saucered ship with two nacelles.
- Weather might be free forming instead of controlled.
- There appears to be a lot of social unrest and fights between cultures in this Federation, including in Andoria.
- There is a Federation "Trans Warp Network" with nodes that penetrate deep within the Klingon Empire. Is this a transwarp communication array, a transwarp beaming array, or does it indicate some kind of speed boosting network for the ships?
- There is wormhole research going on near the Federation/Klingon Neutral Zone. Is this where Nero and the Narada entered this timeframe? The Narada and its crew was captured by Klingons after being disabled by the Kelvin.
- Coridan, Galorndan Core, Sherman's Planet, the Organian Peace Treaty (disputed), and a newly discovered(?) Khitomer are mentioned.
Here are marked and unmarked versions of the screencaps (click to enlarge):