Considering that we have no way of knowing how to compare the phaser and warp technologies of the Abramsverse and the Prime Timeline, I don't think there's any reasonable way to answer the question of whether the U.S.S. Vengeance could defeat the Enterprise-E.
Hmm.. they never hit the same targets?
So far as I can recall, we only ever see Federation starships of the 2250s either firing phasers on the Narada
or upon one-another (Enterprise
). So, no, we have no idea how to compare 23rd Century Abrams Timeline ships' weaponry and defense systems to 24th Century Prime Timeline ships' weaponry and defense systems.
The most we can say is that the Narada
, which originated from 2387 of the Prime Timeline as a mining ship, tore damn near every 2258 Abrams Timeline ship she encountered to shreds. We don't know if that's because the standard armaments available to 24th Century mining ships are just that much better than 2258 Abrams Timeline ships', or if it's because the Narada
was upgraded with tech that's super-advanced even for the Narada