Vengeances gatling phasers ripped the Enterprise to shreds with her shields up. Given all the technical advances of this new universe and the stronger hulls, advanced shielding, Vengeance took bites out of her like it wasn't there.
The Enterprise E was badly damaged and losing her battle with the Scimitar, a ship built by human/bat hybrid slaves with the same technological level, simple more shields and hull plating. Even scoring direct hits, she depleted her weapons almost entirely and couldn't dent the Scimitar.
Put her up against something with transwarp, phaser cannons of that level of power, given that she's smaller and a hell of a lot thinner (more fragile likely) than the Nu Enterprise and Vengeance would rip her apart in minutes.