Attitudes were different, certainly, and usually not what we'd call enlightened: ("One day [Lt. Palamas will] find the right man and off she'll go, out of the service"). But in the very first episode filmed, while Pike was gone, Number One was in command of the Enterprise, in effect the captain. That's a fairly strong, positive start; too bad it wasn't expanded upon in the course of the series.
While Number One was certainly awesome in how she took command and everyone else followed right beside her, it got kind of... sidetracked when she was kidnapped and used as a potential mate for Pike. Also, Vina saying that she can't go back with Pike because she's not beautiful I find quite offensive. You're not worth much if you're not beautiful, and your intelligence makes you a good choice for breeding stock.