A bit of timeline exercise to illustrate where my current thinking is on this subject.
Nikola Tesla is born.
Nikola Tesla investigates harvesting energies from space. He believes that it was merely a question of time until men would succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature, stating: "Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe.”
The Wright Brothers achieve Earth's first powered flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
An unmanned Preserver probe prevents a cometary fragment from wiping out half of central Europe by diverting the body to explode over an uninhabited region of Siberia, flattening and burning the forest.
Conjecture based on historical accounts
Earth's World War I, also known as The Great War, begins following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Spain.
Earth's World War I ends with over 6 million people losing their lives.
The League of Nations is founded in Geneva. It marks the first Earth attempt at global government. Its effectiveness is hampered, however, by the refusal of the United States, whose president proposed the league, to join.
Albert Einstein conducting work on the nature of space-time, when he is thunderstruck to find that, if his calculations are correct, it is in fact theoretically possible to evade the speed-of-light barrier by "warping" space, thus making it possible to travel interstellar distances in weeks or months instead of plodding along at a fraction of c. Einstein doesn't release these findings publicly, but discusses them with colleagues he particularly trusts.
A huge stock market crash in the United States plunges the entire industrialized world into economic depression. Poverty is widespread even in the great powers of Earth.
Edith Keeler, a well-known social worker, is killed in a tragic accident when she is hit by an automobile while crossing a street in downtown New York. The police search for two witnesses, a man who was known to be keeping company with Keeler and his vaguely Oriental-looking friend (who is noticeable because of the knit cap he always wears), but they seem to have literally vanished from the face of the Earth.
John Christopher, Air Force pilot, is born during this period on Earth. After 1969, John Christopher will have a son, Shaun Geoffrey Christopher who will lead the first successful Earth-Saturn probe.
Tomorrow is Yesterday (TOS)
Nikola Tesla, at age 81, claims in a letter to have completed a "dynamic theory of gravity" that "would put an end to idle speculations and false conceptions, as that of curved space". He states that the theory was "worked out in all details" and that he hoped to soon give it to the world.
Earth's World War II begins with a Nazi-controlled Germany led by Adolph Hitler invading the country of Poland.
Nikola Tesla informs friend and confidant Kenneth M. Swezey that he has “witnessed his own passing” in a specific vision. He instructs Swezey to remove a collective set of plans, notes and completed blueprints (Experimental works and projects that were lost in a fire; re-created from Tesla's photographic memory) secured in a locked trunk and transfer them to a museum in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. He tells Swezey that the contents of the trunk are to be opened only after Humanity has put an end to it's mistrust across international borders and makes a concerted effort to push into outer space together. Among the contents of the strongbox are a set of functional plans and detailed notes on assembly for a “gravity manipulation apparatus” which will revolutionize air and space travel well beyond the orbit of Earth. The gravity apparatus is the culmination of the last twelve years of Tesla's life developed in secret and well outside of the scientific mainstream; a fact which he had feared would attract the attention of “audiences of interest”. With continuing conflict in Europe and around the world, his fears are justified.
Nikola Tesla is found dead in his room at the New Yorker Hotel. The official cause of death was coronary thrombosis but lingering doubts on this disclosure remain.
Kenneth Swezey, fearing for his life, is unable to secure passage to Belgrade. He retreats to Saint Johns, Nova Scotia pending travel arrangements.
Swezey is unable to relocate to Belgrade, Yugoslavia as instructed by the late Nikola Tesla. Fearing the cause is lost, Swezey returns to New York but is met along the route by John M. Onex, who proceeds to tell Swezey that he is Agent 120 a man of the twentieth-century relocated to an alien world far in the future and sent back to this time period to ensure that Tesla's revolutionary work be distributed as intended and for the betterment of the entire world. After a heated period of rational convincing, Swezey agrees to allowing Agent 120 to take the gravity manipulation technology to it's intended destination in Belgrade. Onex instructs Swezey to publish The Tesla Papers detailing the life, times and contributions of Nikola Tesla and charges him with ensuring that said works were proclaimed as a national heritage of human science.
Due to various technical problems, the Manhattan Project experiences delays which make a finished nuclear weapon unavailable until late 1945. The Soviets, under the Zhukov/Molotov junta, grind westward, pushing the fascists back inch by inch. The Germans choose to go on the defensive instead of attacking at the Kursk salient, and the resulting fight, while a narrow tactical victory for the Soviets, leaves their best armored units shattered, and the Germans are able to withdraw into more compact defensive lines. No salient forms in the Army Group Center area that the Soviets can exploit. The Red Army, all the same, keeps grinding relentlessly west, with copious Lend-Lease aid from the US. The Pacific War, North Africa and Italy proceed much as OTL. Preparations for Overlord, the invasion of Normandy, begin in earnest.
As the front in Europe comes to a stalemate at the frontiers of Germany, the US finally launches Operation Olympic, the invasion of Kyushu. Near the end of 1945, though, everything finally comes together. The Trinity test is carried out successfully at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on December 10, 1945. A fierce debate immediately follows as to whether to use the atomic bomb first against Germany or Japan.
Earth's World War II ends with the United States detonating two atomic weapons over the Imperial Japanese islands of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ushering in Earth's Atomic Age.
The United Nations is chartered on planet earth. The organization represents a significant effort in the quest for planetary peace.
Earth test pilot Chuck Yeager becomes the first human to fly an aircraft faster than the speed of sound in his planet’s atmosphere. Yeager accomplishes the feat in a small rocket-powered vehicle called the Glamorous Glennis.
Project Chrysalis, a secretive group of scientists develops about 100 genetically engineered children of all racial and cultural groups, using bases located largely in third world countries. More are bred when these are a success and the numbers are about 500 by 1980.
An intensive period of study begins on the study and application of “gravity control and propulsion research” as a means of propulsion and other uses. These studies are known to have been conducted at least until 1974, when all apparent references to it cease within aeronautical and aerospace engineering circles.
The first legitimate, two-dimensional photograph is taken of a Preserver probe ship by a Terran. By 2018, the number of photographs will total at least 18--and all will be dismissed as frauds and hoaxes. The Preservers account for other UFO cases, especially abductions and extraterrestrial contacts in the past and present.
Conjecture based on background information from Prime Directive and The Prometheus Design (Pocket Books)
Sputnik 1 becomes Earth's first artificial satellite. It has a profound affect on the world and enables Russia to take the lead in early space development.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) federal agency is established in North America on Earth. Over the next century it will be responsible for many Earth spaceflights, including the Voyager series unmanned probes.
Star Trek The Motion Picture and Historical Accounts
The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs is established, initially created as a small expert unit within the Secretariat to assist the ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space established by the General Assembly in its resolution 1348 (XIII) of 13 December 1958. In time, this office will be replaced by the Office of the United Earth Space Probe Agency (UESPA) in 1972.
Stavos Keneclius prior to his developments in cloning and genetic engineering headed a secret Eurasian project of eugenics with selective breeding of humans for superior traits. It is speculated that Keneclius may have had the assistance of Nazi and Stalinist technology from the early 30s to this date.
Khan Noonien Singh is born in Agar, India.
Cryogenics is developed to facilitate certain medical procedures including open-heart surgery. Cryogenic technology would be further developed and lead to the advent of Cryonics, a method of rapidly bringing the body of a subject to near absolute-zero conditions via negative ions and the introduction of Cordrazine into the body in minute quantities.
Conjecture based on background information from The Neutral Zone (TNG)
The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs becomes a unit within the Department of Political and Security Council Affairs when the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space meets for the first time.
A Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is adopted on planet Earth. The agreement represents a significant early step toward the control of weapons of mass destruction. This treaty was discovered to be in violation after the “McKinley Rocket Base Incident” of 1968.
Conjecture based on Contemporary Accounts
[COLOR="Red"](Point of Departure between times and events in our timeline and Star Trek. From this point on, all data and events presented here are the subject of an alternate timeline and are not open to interpretation against events which may transpire in our own continuum)[/COLOR]
Captain John Christopher is stationed at the Omaha Air Base.
Tomorrow is Yesterday (TOS)
NASA's request for $100 million to begin Phase B contractor studies of Earth-orbital space stations is granted.
Phase Three of Project Rover, Peewee, is initiated. It was small, easy to test, and well-sized for unmanned scientific interplanetary missions or small nuclear "tugs".
The McKinley Rocket Base Incident- USS Enterprise (NCC-1701), conducting historical research by order of the United Federation of Planets Star Fleet, intercepts an interstellar transport conducting Agent 147 “Gary Seven” to Earth. His original task was to sabotage the launch of a suborbital nuclear weapons platform by the United States of America in of itself a response to other nations having already launched similar platforms. At this time, the substantiating logic behind such launches was to maintain the balance of power and mutually-assured destruction in the event of a nuclear weapons exchange by any number of nations. Inadvertently, the Enterprise officers involved delayed Seven's operations as they were hesitant to commit to his assurances on the vital success of this operation. The device is launched and falls to Earth a short time later, but Enterprise officers had prevented Seven from completing the disarming process and the vehicle proceeded to landfall “hot” and armed. At a altitude of 104 miles, the vehicles was successfully detonated, and in the process gained the immediate attention of the entire globe.
This incident galvanizes global concerns about the direction of the 'space race' of the time; whether humanity was racing to space for the benefit of all, or for the sake of ensuring hastened destruction in a nuclear exchange.
The specified role and intent of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs is called into question following the dissemination of the McKinley Rocket Base Incident of 1968. Many seated nations with the United Nations begin to question what role -if any- the United Nations can play in ensuring the end of the proliferation of nuclear arms in Earth orbit.
Robert Kennedy goes on to win the Democratic nomination for the presidency and win the election in November against Richard Nixon.
In an historic first, the 3-man crew of Apollo 8 journeys around the moon, observing and photographing the natural satellite and viewing 'Earth rise'.
Star Trek Spaceflight Chronology
Robert Kennedy enters office as President of the United States of America. Among his many achievements while in office is to secure funding for NASA and contracted affiliates originally requested in FY 1966, ensuring the continuation of the orbital space lab/station, and Apollo-series manned lunar missions which paved the way for the continued development of space exploration beyond the lunar horizon.
The progressive withdrawal of American forces from the Brush Wars' zone of conflict is ordered on the authority of President Robert Kennedy, and ultimately completed in mid-1970.
The United Outer Space Initiative is signed by participatory signatories of the United Nations, opening an era of international cooperation unprecedented in Human history. The Initiative calls for the establishment of an international space agency based within and directly answerable to the United Nations which is charged with overseeing the peaceful exploration and development of space including satellite and planetary bodies within the Sol system. The document is partially framed around the lessons learned from the “McKinley Rocket Base Incident”, which in of itself was an operation carried out by the United States in direct response to similar launches (or attempted launches) of nuclear missile platforms in orbit of Earth. The Initiative calls for the immediate deactivation of these platforms and the safe destruction of existing platforms. It also calls for the peaceful development of space and bodies contained within the Sol system, while appropriating provisions for the effective commercialization of said via entrepreneurship and the private business sector. The Initiative also calls for complete disclosure any and all discoveries made within the Sol system that might directly impact or harm the collective nations of Earth and it's citizens.
The first manned moon shot, consisting of three astronauts, is launched on Wednesday, 6 A.M. E.S.T. Humans first set foot on Earth's moon, Neil Armstrong being the first. It is the first of twelve successful landings on the Moon prior to the building of Base One. This is the start of Human manned interplanetary exploration.
Tomorrow is Yesterday (TOS)
Just two days after the the first successful manned lunar landing, NASA awarded North American Rockwell (NAR) and Douglas Astronautics Company Phase B space station study contracts worth $50 million each. In the period of time leading to the launch and successful orbital insertion of the 12-man space station, Douglas Astronautics succeeds in developing functional designs for both station and it's interim logistics vehicle.
Conjecture based on http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/20...-station-1970/
The Office of the United Earth Space Agency is founded, as called for in the United Outer Space Initiative of 1969 via special appropriations committee, under the immediate supervision of the United Nations Department of Political and Security Council Affairs, with offices and support located at the United Nations complex at Vienna. The Office is founded following the near-disaster that history has come to call the “McKinley Rocket Base Incident” of 1968.
Four years after the founding of the Office of the United Earth Space Probe Agency, copies of Nikola Tesla's Gravity Manipulation Apparatus along with detailed instructions for assembly are dispatched virtually simultaneously to scientific authorities in the United States, Soviet Union, China, India, United Kingdom, and Japan. The revealed works of Nikola Tesla overturn nearly a century of theoretical inquiry into the nature of gravity and it's supposed limitations.
Astronauts of Apollo 20 discover what is now known to be a Slaver stasis box at the exact center of Crater Copernicus, which the mission had been sent to study. Gaining access to the stasis box with much difficulty, retro-engineering of it's only contents, a 'flying belt' would lead to a method of generating artificial gravity in space vessels (thus representing the final “key” to the revealed works of Nikola Tesla between 1937 and 1943) and facilities by 1984 after an intense period of study conducted by the nations of Earth. The artificial gravity breakthrough would also lead to a feasible Inertial Dampening system that would in time allow for greater vehicle velocities approaching .25c by 2018.
All documented studies on artificial gravity, gravity generation and related concepts suddenly cease across the board.
The Douglas-Yakovlev Aerospace partnership, a merger of the Douglas Aircraft Company (USA) and Yakovlev Design Bureau (Russia), is established. Following on the continued success of the NERVA program (And equally due to the incredibly-fortuitous chain of events after 1968), this partnership becomes the lead designer of thermal nuclear-driven vehicles from 1975 well into the twenty-second century. This strategically-cooperative merger would produce some of the finest examples of Earth-based interplanetary and interstellar vessels most notably beginning with the DY-Series.
Conjecture based on Star Fleet Printing Office and Aridas Sofia
The first modules of the Douglas Phase B Space Station are successfully inserted into Earth orbit. 24 hours after insertion, it's first 12-man crew arrives via the interim logistics vehicle Crew/Cargo Module (CCM).
The first manned Mars flyby is conducted by the Soviet Union via Heavy Interplanetary vehicle.
Harry Doddema – Titan Fleet Yards
The first fully-functional orbiter, Enterprise, is delivered to the Kennedy Space Center.
Khan Noonien Singh completes education in engineering and aeronautics, and develops extensive experience in specialized military combat and strategic training.
Phase B space station is declared fully operational.
Nuclear shuttles enter into service.
Deep space probe series' Voyager I-VI are launched during this period. Designed to collect data and transmit it back to Earth, this series is charged with the mandate to “learn all that is learnable” and transmit that data back to it's creator.
Star Trek The Motion Picture
Space shuttle Enterprise (OV-102) is launched with a crew of 2, beginning the first of long successful string of STS missions in Low Earth Orbit. Enterprise is accompanied by sister-ships Challenger (OV-103), Discovery (OV-104), Atlantis (OV-105), and Endeavor (OV-106) between 1979 and 1988.
NASA in cooperation with NPO Energia complete its "low-cost definition studies". Ostensibly studying costs of combining and reducing space mission costs to an absolute minimum. In reality, this functioned as a "grey operations project" producing the first synthetic gravity field amongst other technology; Unified Technology Project.
The Heavy Transport Development Project is announced. By this time, a detailed understanding of synthetic gravity generation would allow for a limited artificial gravity field effect to be generated aboard a space vehicle of sufficient size and energy generation. The project called for the design of a suitable nuclear fission rocket design that only a decade earlier was deemed too risky and cost ineffective to be practical. This development project would lead to the design of the first DY transports.
The Eugenics project is in full momentum by the mid 70s, producing "Supermen" who quietly are being groomed for leadership roles around the world. This outgrowth of the Nazi eugenics movement is rivaled by the efforts of the Geneticists, led by internationally known researcher Stavos Keneclius. By the 1980s, Keneclius brings to public attention the first known human clone, that of himself. Socio-political backlash from this announcement produces the anti-human perfection movement, which later unites with the Luddite anti-technology philosophy, to become the Naturalist Movement.
Douglas-Yakovlev aerospace is awarded the contract for developing Earth's first Heavy Transport vessel design, in the future to be known as the DY-100 Savannah class. The initial contract calls for at least three hulls to be constructed by 1991, and upon successful demonstration of flight capability and vehicle space trials, 7 additional hulls are to be constructed for a total of 10 transport-capable vessels to service the planned lunar facilities, as well as for secondary applications in interplanetary research, and colonization.
Conjecture – Aridas Sofia and Star Fleet Printing Office
The Douglas Phase B Space Station has reached it's expected operational lifetime.
The drug Cordrazine is developed on Earth and used in radiation sickness therapy. Further study of this synthetic compound revealed that when introduced into test subject, the body was able to withstand extremely low temperatures such as found in absolute zero environments.
Conjecture based on the Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual
The DY-100 Savannah Class Transport Development Project is announced by representatives of the fledgling UESPA. The project calls for the funding of at least 10 vessels to be constructed between 1988 and 1994. The purpose of these vessels would be to transport personnel, equipment, supplies and modules to the various orbital projects including the Space Station, and beyond to the planned lunar facilities. These vessels would also be used as limited range interplanetary exploration craft.
Conjecture based on the DY Class Construction Plans
A letter from UESPA's NASA liaison Geoffrey Mandel to Dr. Imran Ahmed, Staff Consultant for Project SETI indicates that the Botany Bay (DY-102) sleeper ship should be ready for a Mars expedition sometime in 1994, following a trial run of the Savannah (DY-100). The Eugenics supermen receive a reception in New City. A Terrestrial planet is confirmed orbiting Alpha Centauri.
The U.S.S. Enterprise Officer’s Manual
Cryogenic advances are made allowing for more practical applications of the technology in space travel. Improved power supplies and maintenance software greatly enhance their commercial value.
The Naturalist Movement is founded by Randolph Warren Green, and rapidly gains strength and influence in the political arena based on the false assumption that cloning had become commonplace and that, in time, the cloning procedure would eventually replace the natural-birth way of life. Randolph Green is the father of Edward Featherstone Green, who will lead a genocidal war against the perceived “clone threat” in 2034-35. Espousing "Genetic and Eugenic Cleansing" of Mankind. The Naturalist Movement (or Party) was formed initially in the United States. This came after the Eugenics Wars, out of former ecologically oriented political parties. These zealous groups propagandized that both cloned and eugenics (specially-bred) humans be permanently disenfranchised. Naturally born humans would replace them in political power.
The Naturalist Movement included in their propaganda famous 20th Century "human wars" novels, including: "Slan", a telepathic world war postulated by A. E. van Vogt; "Time Enough for Love", part of Robert Heinlein's "Future History" series of novels (the novel told the biography of artificially-bred immortal Lazarus Long); and the "Shining Path" of bred-human superiority, written into Frank Herbert's "Dune Chronicles". These books, said the zealots, prophesied the downfall of "natural" humanity. In actuality, there were only about 30 cloned human beings known as of 2030, along with various in vitro and eugenics survivors. This did not sway the NM's propagandists. Also, there was rumored in new-age circles, of isolated "perfect" humans, supposed immortals that had been naturally produced by Earth's biosphere, in the tradition of "Saint Germaine," also known as the "Wandering Jew". However, this notion was discounted even by the Natural Party members as "wishful thinking".
A young charismatic man named Khan Noonien Singh is elected to India's parliament.
S.S. Savannah (DY-100), the first of Earth's interplanetary spacecraft, is launched and begins trial runs.
Kevin Willcocks and The USS Enterprise Officer's Manual
General Muhammed Hasan's Revolutionary Islamic Genesis Movement overthrows Ayatollah Khatami in Iran. He begins mass genocide of native Turks, Assyrians, Armenians, Christians, and Zoroastrians in his country.
S.S. Mayflower (DY-101) is launched. Trials for this vessel are delayed until after the conclusion of the Eugenics Wars in 1996.
Kevin Willcocks and The USS Enterprise Officer's Manual
S.S. Botany Bay (DY-102) is launched. In 1996, this vessel will be depart the Sol system along with 96 of the Eugenics 'supermen' left alive after the close of the Eugenics Wars.
Kevin Willcocks and The USS Enterprise Officer's Manual
The Eugenics "Supermen" seize power across Earth. The cadre of highly intelligent and physically powerful men and women led loyalist forces to take power in over forty nations throughout the "Third World", including Latin America, the Mediterranean Basin, Sub-Saharan Africa and in Central Asia. Certain nations of the former Eastern Bloc supplied arms and "humanitarian" materiel to Khan, Li Quan, Joaquin, Xian Ling, Macpherson, and many other Supermen.
Conjecture based on Space Seed (TOS)
The United Nations Armed Forces (UNAF) is formed on Earth. The jurisdiction of this multi-national police organization will later be extended to include the supervision of national arms and technology. After the 'Clone War' of the 2030s, it will replace national militias entirely.
Conjecture based on The U.S.S. Enterprise Officer's Manual
Khan Noonian Singh, absolute ruler of more than a quarter of Earth, from South Asia to the Middle East, escapes aboard the S.S. Botany Bay, (DY-102) sleeper vessel with a crew of 96 "supermen." Their destination is Tau Ceti, possibly the destination of other supermen who will be wiped out.
Space Seed (TOS), U.S.S. Enterprise Officer’s Manual, Star Trek 2 (Bantam Books), and FASA
The Eugenics Wars end as Khan and his cadre of eugenic supermen are presumed killed in the battle to liberate Sydney,Australia- where they had held out in a last stand. Chairman Minsei signed an unconditional surrender document in Beijing, China.
The Eugenics Wars comes to an end. Dr. Stavos Keniclius, Earth's first cloned human, is banned from the community. The tyrants' altered Humans are declared wards of the United Nations and are sent to live in a series of camps in isolated areas. Gene engineering of Humans is banned, although certain groups will pass on the forbidden knowledge. Many of the men and women who married Khans are hunted down and lynched. Their children are killed just as ruthlessly. Many manage to flee to the Sahara Reclamation Zone, Mars, and the Moon. Several hundred half-Khan children are secretly brought to Alaska.
Conjecture based on the Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual, and The Infinite Vulcan (TAS)
A Second Dark Ages falls over what is left of the third world on Earth. This brief three-year period of humanitarian disaster and recovery sees the rise of the United Nations in power and influence, rapidly elevating it prominence as a defacto world governing body. A period of nuclear/biological aftermath in southern Asia and in Sub-Saharan Africa. The first and second worlds are driven into a Second Great Depression, 1997-2001, in trying to spend money to clean up the devastation by Khan's Alliance. In space, the Orbital Habitats and bases on the Moon are left with barely skeletal staffs, and develop near independence.
Conjecture based on Starfleet Medical Reference Manual
Antimatter is produced in minute quantities on Earth.
Historian and author Travis Mitchell claims in his seminal work- The Eugenics War that there is next to no evidence that Khan Singh and his clique of eugenic supermen were killed in the liberation of Sydney on October 1,1996.Mitchell puts forth the widely unaccepted theory that Khan and his people escaped death and punishment on a DY-100 vessel launched that same day.