I think the closest would probably be the Galileo interior, which was a bigger version of the interior built into the actual shuttlecraft (although I think all we saw in that one was a couple of chairs).
To the best of my knowledge, the shuttle exterior mockup had no interior beyond the bare minimum that needed to be visible through the door. I don't think it counts.
I wondered if there might've been more than one turbolift car, one behind the bridge doors and another on the corridor set, or just standing by itself so a camera could easily see in. But all the TOS set blueprints I can find show only the car on the bridge set and just dotted circles where a turbolift could go on the corridor set, suggesting that they only had the one car and moved it as needed.