Was there any specific mention of the USS Constitution in TOS, aside from perhaps the Court Martial chart?
The NCC-1700 on that chart was never canonically referred to as the U.S.S. Constitution. The term "Constitution class" was
on a diagram though; I believe it was in one of Scotty's technical manuals.
I do recall mention in the novelization of the Enterprise being the only ship of the original twelve to survive its 5-year mission intact, and that is why it became the basis for the movie era refit.
Well, that would have been contradicted by Picard's statement about having a Connie in the Starfleet Museum.