I'm not sure the Federation is so petty as to define to geography based on political concerns.
Well, the division of the galaxy into four parts is obviously done on "political concerns" insofar as Earth is used as the all-important point of reference. That's politics as much as defining the zero meridian as being at Greenwich (and not, say, in Paris) is.
If this zero meridian were
rotated a bit between the TOS movies and TNG, it might just as well be categorized as "less pettily political" than the original arrangement, as the Earthlings doing the defining would be moving the center of the universe away from Earth!
Is it? Or it that just something seen in extraneous works? Is there an on screen graphic that places Earth as the zero meridian?