Seeing how Kirk griped about a personal "female" yeoman it kind of followed that after Rand left Kirk seemed happy enough to do without one. And so it then made more sense to see a variety of them as it also helped to foster the idea of a large crew where we didn't always see the same faces.
Yeah, there was that guy in "The Cage" standing around with a clipboard, but also (although not "official") in Marvel Comics' Early Voyages
series we see Pike's yeoman before Colt is a male. They picked up on the reference in "The Cage" of Pike's personal yeoman having been killed on Rigel 7.
The real question at the heart of this, though, is whether a yeoman is really needed when you have extensive ways of storing and filing data electronically. Given the yeoman's role could change over the centuries, but in trying to imagine a future world it's impossible to envision how many things can change over time particularly where new roles are created and old ones can disappear or at least change drastically.
And I think this dovetails into the ship's Records Officer as depicted by Finney in "Courtmartial." Today we use computers and electronic data storage extensively and we still have secretaries and assistants. So it's possible down the road we could still need people to handle all the records and reports and information generated by a starship or starbase in operation. It's just that their jobs might not be exactly the same as they are today.
My real question, though, is does a yeoman really need to be on a landing party? Perhaps, depending on the situation, they depend on yeomen to keep an independent record/recording of what transpires planetside as opposed to relying simply on personal recollections. That could work but we didn't see them used that way consistently.