Re: Do you think Starfleet felt Kirk had failed any of the missions?
Preventing a likely galactic war (had the UFP President been assinated) I suspect command would be delighted with him. We also have no idea how old the 1701-A was. Command might have recieved preliminary damaged reports and decided the ship wasn't worth the effort of repairing.
The 1701-B would've already been on the drawing board since it launches a year after the events of The Undiscovered Country
. Likely the 1701-A would've been put out to pasture when Kirk had retired anyway. The battle damage just accelerated the retirement of the ship.
"If we're going to be damned, let's be damned for what we really are." - Jean-Luc Picard, "Encounter at Farpoint"