^Well, I don't think a forward-facing bridge one the "almost totally new" Enterprise of the classic movies disproves anything about the original. But you're right about "The Cage" showing a forward-facing bridge where the turbolift and shaft wouldn't fit.
Anyway, back on topic. With the digital release of Into Darkness
there are tons more clips and screengrabs out there. Here's shuttlebay 2, located about where I'd guessimated:
And here are two comparison shots of the bridge windows, the lower-detail version for general exterior shots and the higher-detail version which was composited with the actual set. The taller high-detail model is scaled for a 725m Enterprise (see pics way earlier in the thread). I wonder if perhaps they made the lower-detail version shorter to obscure the view inside, which would have increased ILM's workload quite a bit (placing virtual actors at stations and ensuring it all matched up with where everyone was in the interior shots)
Finally, here is a shot of the atrium during the fall sequence, showing all the decks in the saucer section: