The C-130 comparison does seem quite apt.
Regarding the refit - an interesting point, suggesting the Enterprise
was the only ship really refit. Once she proves herself, newtech for everyone! I'm envisioning mass retirements of whole blocks of ships of several different tiers; cruisers, frigates, destroyers, etc.
Extending that, we might posit that all refit-style ships we saw, of any class, were newbuilds to replace older ships while the Excelsior
was proving herself, along with her new wave of tech. So the pre-refit "Miranda"
might have had registries in the 1600s, the 1800s being the new replacements. Unless of course, one ship per class was chosen for the refit program. The odds of it being Reliant
are, of course, not good.
The notion of Starfleet actually avoiding refits in favor of new builds is interesting and somewhat appealing.