Odds and ends:
Therefore, all we need is for someone from Section 31 to see a recording from the Kelvin to know who the attackers are, and then I'm sure the S31 machine cranked into high gear, gathering information on Romulan language and culture.
But why should S31 or others in the know make the information public, accessible to nobodies like Pike or Kirk? The whole idea was to keep the universe from learning that Romulans were Vulcans - wouldn't keeping this secret be more crucial now than ever before?
It's highly unlikely Ayel was speaking English at the time.
Is it? He'd know he was dealing with a Starfleet vessel, and the skippers of those speak English in his century... Showing off by speaking the opponent's language might be a typical Romulan trait.
...stemming from the attack on the Kelvin.
Why should anything
stem from the attack on the Kelvin
So a space monstrosity came and destroyed a starship. So what? That must happen every second Thursday or so. The enemy had exotic weapons, but most space monsters do. There's no particular point in analyzing the attack of a unique enemy who's not likely to be encountered ever again, and probably little chance of reaching any conclusions from such an analysis anyway.
In what way exactly did Kirk's encounter with the Space Amoeba alter Starfleet? Or with the Doomsday Machine? When we actually saw
Starfleet for the first time, in the TOS movies, there was no way to tell whether it had changed or not, as there had been no good insight into Starfleet back during Kirk's original adventures. The same with any "change" between the teaser of STXI and the body of that movie.