I'm rather convinced the writers didn't think of it in those terms, if at all. But I personally think it works fine in a couple of alternate ways:
1) The loop consists of the E-D fumbling around in the Typhon Expanse, and at some point hitting a zone that sucks in another starship from the past (also within the Expanse but not necessarily in the same spot) and spits it exactly at the E-D; the collision causes an explosion that resets things. In that version, the Bozeman
does experience a loop, but it only lasts for a couple of seconds from their point of view, leaving them no chance to even observe that something might be amiss. And the E-D is a "disaster magnet" that tickles Typhon the exact right way to create perfect collisions every time.
2) The loop consists of the E-D always going to the same spot of the Typhon Expanse where the local "natural feature" is a starship that has just arrived from the past. They collide with it and are flung a few days to the past, but the Bozeman
really isn't; it has always been destined to emerge from the past at that time and in that spot, and only ever does it once (but it's an "once" that our heroes live multiple times). In that version, the E-D just happens to hit the "sweet spot" of collision-inducing space-time coordinates, perhaps because Starfleet regulations describe a standard way to maneuver within Typhon and to react to things off the starboard bow - so even if the E-D is a few minutes early or late or too much to port or up, the conn officer automatically adjusts the ship back to a specified "safe studying position" with respect to the mysterious phenomenon. And that "safe" position is the one that will cause the collision.
There are no doubt other ways to introduce a "mechanism" that ensures collision despite the massive odds against it.
Still loving the tractor beam idea, though.