The only thing wrong with the Enterprise at all during her escape from the Vengeance was her warp drive was not 100% operational due to one coolant feed being sabotaged.
Her shields, hull, weapons, vital systems were all functioning at space dock fresh state. Vengeance's phasers reacted as though the shields weren't even there at all, not just blowing up but fully vapourising entire sections of the Enterprise's hull, opening up the saucer, taking tens of meters of hull right off the starboard nacelle like it was paper, and opened a 20 meter high hole right through to the enginnering section.
Following up she punched at least one hole right down through the thickest part of the saucer section and ripped huge gaping holes decks deep into other areas, and exposing half the warp coils in the engines.
The Narada's missiles didn't even leave visible marks from direct strikes on her.