With star trek tech, it doesn't make much sense - starfleet could have given the bajorans a few fusion reactors, for example.
Within the confines of the episode - either ~half a million people starving/freezing/dying or destroying the ecosystem of an uninhabited moon - the second option wins.
Yes they could have, perhaps the Federation offered but were turned down. Or perhaps it was a pride thing the Bajoran's. They wanted to stand on their own two feet and do it by themselves.
If the bajorans put their pride on such a high pedesal that they preferred to destroy a moon's ecosystem rather than accept help when help was available - well, that would lower my opinion of the bajorans considerably. That would not even be stubbornness, but idiocy.
It may be better to just accept the contradiction as a plot hole than to try and fit the episode into the larger technological trekverse.