It's been postulated that scans of the Narada resulted in accelerated technology which explains why technology in NuTrek is beyond where it should be by that time.
Postulated, yes - but this seems unnecessary. The differences seem quite minor, and if anything, nuTrek seems to be missing a thing or two from the old timeline! Weaker sidearms, clumsier shuttles, no life support fields in evidence, less use of gravity control...
Whether the Jellyfish represented advanced technology or not, we don't really know. It was the fastest ship Spock could get his hands on, but this may simply mean he got the decrepit old scooter from the Vulcan Science Academy when the government refused to give him a proper warship or courier vessel. There are no scenes where the Jellyfish would demonstrate high speeds, and indeed Nero appears to think it possible to chase after this craft in his slow-as-molasses mining rig after Spock destroys his drill.