Yet somehow Worf's Change of Heart or other mistakes are the ones that will cost his career? What about Picard's Insurrection? Kirk's stealing the Enterprise? They all took actions that should cost them, but only Worf will suffer the lasting consequences?
Revisionist history. You're forgetting that Kirk did
face the consequences of his actions. He was demoted to captain. That the move was something he secretly wanted had nothing to do with the decision to boot him from the admiralty. And had Kirk and company not saved Earth from the cetacean probe, it's likely they'd have been thrown out of Starfleet altogether, possibly imprisoned. The charges against the former Enterprise
crew were dropped only because their actions were associated with the rescue of Spock and the eventual saving of Earth.
As for Picard, he wasn't punished because he did nothing wrong. Admiral Dougherty threatened him with court martial, but that was before Picard learned of the common ancestory between the Son'a and the Ba'ku and Dougherty's attempts to force-relocate the Ba'ku at the behest of the Son'a. Riker and LaForge were able to contact Starfleet and explain the situation, so whatever charges may have been filed against Picard were eventually dropped. No crime, no punishment.
Also keep in mind that both Kirk and Picard were involved in these situations after
each had made captain (or better). Worf was a lieutenant commander at the time of "Change of Heart," and although he'd served as captain of the Defiant
in Sisko's absence, that's not the same thing as having the responsibility full time.