In the book, the terrorist organization was actually SMERSH, which was a Soviet counter-intelligence agency, and Le Chiffre was a financier for the organization. Le Chiffre was gambling with SMERSH's money, and Bond beats him. He is similarly killed by a SMERSH agent for his treachery.
.... The film version is similar, except that the film Le Chiffre is more of a banker who will fund any organization, and just so happens to run up against Quantum (who isn't even named in the first film).
Aye, that's the problem with modern action-spy franchises; if not the Soviets, who's bankrolling the villains, and why? The whole notion of Quantum is stupid in the first place - corporations already make record profits by shaping first-world laws; they're not going to make any more by endangering voters' apathy by creating an international criminal cabal even if they could
keep it secret, which they couldn't.
, I hear you re: the novels, but Craig-Bond doesn't seem at all more than professionally cordial with Craig-era Tanner, and clearly likes but barely knows Felix Leiter. I stand by my statement that Craig-Bond has next to no established character; the writers just coast by on the brand name and tropes, just as they did with Brosnan.