I wish folks would pay attention more, Timed Explosives wouldn't have worked. This was mentioned WITHIN the episode.
No, the array's self-destruct system was damaged. Doesn't mean Janeway couldn't have ordered timed explosives to be made.
It would've taken them hours to get the Array working right to send them home, during which time the Kazon would return with reinforcements and hit them with everything they had until they took both Voyager and the Array. It was a choice between "Fight and lose everything" or "Blow it up now and get out of here"; Going home with it wasn't really an option.
Plus, being pulled there killed a lot of people and damaged the ship, so being sent back the same way would kill people too.
The real problem was that the WRITERS forgot about this and acted like it was her fault later on.