The movie says nothing about the nature of any
of the weapons. We don't know what Nero is firing (George Kirk calls them "torpedoes", Spock's ship thinks they are "missiles", but that's that). We don't know what the whitish bolts from the Kelvin
are. And all we know about the red beams is that Robau says "fire all phasers!" but only just before his ship is silenced - so perhaps he never got the chance to fire any phasers, and all he ever got working was old gamma lasers or something?