There are two types of transporter suppression fields I remember seeing. In Voyager Alliances we saw a disruption field which incapacitated the transporter scanners so that they no way to fix in on their targets, or know who or what hey were transporting. Janeway overruled that device by saying "Well, just transport everyone in the room." Which is stupid and she's lucky no one was cut in half. Meanwhile in Empok Nor there are transporter suppression fields that cause you to explode when the transporter beam is trying to congele someone back into a person. On a planet like Earth where transporters have been around for a while, every "single" transmisson/transporter signal is authorized and tracked like the FAA does with Airplanes today, just so that no one tries any acts of terrorism... Or They're idiots.
But they should be able to identify a rogue signal and "cancel" it relatively instantly if the paper work doesn't check out, which just explains why the hell people still use shuttle pods. Human beings would not be fast enough to track this and it would have to be automated. Computer programing working at computer speed tasked to disrupt illegal signals. You can imagine the fuss if a computer program accidentally kills a couple dozen school children on a field trip to New Atlantis.
In Forge, some dude just walked the bomb in. One foot in front of the other. Reasonably low tech. However later in the episode Archer made a large fuss about needing "codes" to beam through the planetary Jammers on Vulcan into the Forge because he is untrustworthy alien scum.