The ship phasers used most in nuTrek seem to be some variation of the pulse cannon type phasers on the Defiant in DS9...
But I think they have the cutting-beam type too, we just don't see them as often, unfortunately.
On the Kelvin at least, the classic TMP-style dual mount phasers still fire in beams. The pulse phasers on that ship seem to be a sort of additional CIWS (close-in weapon system) like the Phalanx on modern ships. Rapid-fire last line of defense anti-missile phasers. The Enterprise, at the end of the first movie, uses the main phasers like that in pulses against both Nero's ship and his torpedoes.