The only confirmed windows in TOS that I know of are from "The Conscience of the King" and "The Mark of Gideon". In TCOTK, the windows are approx 3' tall based on re-creating the interior as a virtual set. The windows don't match up to any on the filmed model although you could imagine them shuttered and thus not visible most of the time.
I'd like to add the (shuttered) windows in the Season One cabins of Kirk (E-"Deck 12" in "Mudd's Women" and the "Enemy Within", Mudd's cabin and McCoy's in "The Man Trap").
The original 1966 studio set plans for this set feature these windows and the writing on this plan says "WINDOWS" beyond a shred of doubt.
This clearly establishes that the creators / producers had exterior, physical windows in mind. If one has a problem with that travel back in time and tell them to drop the idea.
The TFF windows I'm a bit suspicious of due to their large size and lack of matching windows on the E-A hull. The way they are designed it doesn't look like they can be shuttered and hidden away which would require more creative thinking in how and where would they fit on the ship.
I'm very well aware that the windows seen in ST V TFF are not compatible with the exterior of the actual model (neither is the turbo shaft suggesting more than 30 decks...
). I merely used this and the screencap as an example that from a dim-lit room inside you actually could have a spectacular view into space and stellar phenomena.
Besides, what are those lit structures on the movie Enterprise
? Windows or instruments? I think this is a classic example of rationalization overdrive and I will not dare to pester Andrew Probert with such a question.