I can think of some sci-fi stories that I would have liked to be able to discuss in a class and which could lead to actual discussion of real science
1) The Mouse by Howard Fast (the atmosphere of Jupiter, problems with exploring an alien world)
2) Nightfall (how planets orbit suns, can solar systems with more than one sun exist)
There is another short story but I can't remember its name or its author. In this story explorers arrive on a planet to find the local inhabitants living a very primitive but idyllic lifestyle. At first the explorers think that the locals are backwards/low in intelligence until the explorers start to notice how quickly the locals learn things and adapt to the new technology the explorers introduce. The explorers than realise that the locals are far more intelligent than man and are a threat to humankind. Maybe someone can tell me the name of this story. (EDITED TO ADD - just did a search and discovered it is Turning Point
by Poul Anderson)
I don't read much modern sci-fi but I am sure there must be many modern short stories that could lead to worthwhile discussion of science.