Here's my take on the whole Abramsverse thing (so far):
After the first incursion, and the destruction of the Kelvin, Starfleet is SCARED
. Scared enough that they became a good deal more militaristic than in the Prime universe. Scared enough that the original Constitution class plans got thrown out, along with orbital assembly, in favor of a much larger vessel, with a much larger crew, built in an Iowa cornfield and launched into orbit intact, decades after the Constitution class went into service in the Prime universe. One can hardly blame them for becoming scared: it wasn't that many years after the end of the Romulan War, and here was an attack from an apparently Romulan vessel that, even without the Borg tech that had reportedly been incorporated into it, was over a century more advanced than anything the Federation had.
Robert April either retired before the revised Enterprise was completed, or died, or left Starfleet in disgust of what fear was turning it into.
The destruction of Vulcan left Starfleet even more scared. Scared enough that Section 31 achieved a good deal of prominence, and that, with the discovery of a shipload of Augments, decided to play with fire (something they seem to make a habit of doing).
Personally, I still think that the best thing that could possibly happen to the Abramsverse would be (and I've said this before) for Mr. Daniels, perhaps with the assistance of Dulmur and Lucsly, and maybe Ducane, to recruit Spock Prime to take the Jellyfish and its load of Red Matter back to the future, in time to save Romulus, thus wiping the Abramsverse from the memory of the multiverse.