They don't even seem to have air traffic control in Star Trek and they certainly had no input from Vulcan.
Oh, "Amok Time" had the Vulcan Space Central for the purpose, and "Miri" had a Space Central that might or might not be related. It's just that space isn't all that crowded in TOS yet (or "any more", as it might be); Kirk didn't have to assume a holding pattern for his unannounced visit to Vulcan, so a rescue fleet wouldn't risk much by assuming they, too, would have a clear run.
It's the whole concept of flying to Vulcan blind and unassuming that calls for critique or rationalization. We should remember that the emergency on Vulcan was bogus in the first place: the "seismic troubles" were reported starting long before Nero started drilling. So in all likelihood, the call for help was a fake, sent by Nero after he had similarly faked an emergency that sent most of Starfleet to Laurentius. Nero would seem to have the ability to silence genuine communications from Vulcan (and his drill is indeed confirmed to be a jamming device) and to send messages of his own nevertheless (and he indeed does this while his drill is running).
So, for all we know, while Kirk was asleep Nero might have been feeding the rescue force more disinformation, perhaps even pretending to be Vulcan Space Central and assigning them an approach vector that would send them right into a red matter minefield or whatever.
Anti-matter imbalance allowed it in TMP - is there a fail-safe that prevents it? If so, how did the JJprise warp into a debris field?
I don't see how these should be related. If a failsafe normally prevents forward-reaching wormholes that catch debris, then starships should indeed freely warp into debris fields as these would pose no real threat to them. Indeed, no threat was posed to the JJprise, and no benefit came from Kirk's insistence that the ship drop from warp with shields up - Sulu simply maneuvered around the debris, while shields did zip.
Expanding the invisible parts of a starship (shields, warp fields, the occasional impulse trail or exhaust) far beyond the visible physical boundaries of the ship seems to be a rare phenomenon overall. It can be done, but it calls for explicit action and is no concern in normal operations.