In DS9 they mentioned how the Bajorian Militia would have to be "incorporated into Starfleet" if Bajor joined the Federation (and, btw, a "milita" is a military or quasi-military organization.) I wonder if the Bajorian branch of Starfleet would have been run from Bajor more-so than Earth?
Well the relaunch novels, especially the Worlds of DS9 novel about Bajor, go into a lot of detail about the process of incorporating the Bajoran Militia into Starfleet. Whlie a lot of it's members(including Kira) were offered commissions, the Militia and it's structure did remain in tact. Albeit in a national guard role, and some of the members were resentful over that.
TNG gives evidence that the individual members still have their own forces. In Gambit Riker contacts a Vulcan security minister to coordinate the mission to ensure "no one starts firing" on the mercenary ship for example.
The Vulcans, Andorians, Tellarites and so forth all had considerable military forces. More so than Earth at the time of the Founding of the Federation. By that, I don't get why the Federation Starfleet is so Earth and specifically western influenced... fleets, ship designs, ship names and what not... other than the authors are.