If the Federation had been around to deflect the Chicxulub impact that wiped out the dinosaurs, we wouldn't be here.
We were not a forgone conclusion, or an end result of the extinction of the dinosaurs. There was no intention by the universe for "us" to happen. Not by any stretch. We are here through the most narrow window, and it was just as likely that Earth would have been so totally ruined by that meteor as to never support complex life again as it was for us to come into being.
Plus, we're not talking about Dinosaurs
. If we want to go down that path, then we know for certain what happens in Star Trek when a Class M planet is found with no sentient lifeforms on it. They colonize it
. So if the idea is that "One day an intelligent species could emerge from this planet..." Well they already break that rule anytime they colonize a planet capable of supporting life. We're strictly talking about protecting indigenous sentient life from total extinction by natural disaster. Not species that may, in a few million or billion years exist.