You do make some reasonable points but the Narada defeated 47 Klingon ships - I don't see that being possible without some defensive capabilities.
Kirk defeated a large number of Klingon ships, too - by cheating. Nero relied on defense system codes to kill Earth, and was a habitual prisoner-taker, so he probably cheated his way to victory as well: by obtaining codes to Vulcan's defense system, inserting vicious attack programs into it, and then attacking without fear of reprisal.
If Nero didn't have a chance to get any Klingon codes, there's another arrow in his quiver. When he defeated the Klingons, he already possessed red matter, brought to him by Spock from the future. We know it destroys starships in empty space - it destroyed Nero's.
If that doesn't suffice, either, we can always say Nero never destroyed any Klingon ships. After all, the supposed destruction of Klingon forces was what lured Starfleet into the Laurentius system, apparently, when they should have been guarding Vulcan. Nero would be true to his modus operandi here as well: he'd use communications and information where weapons would not suffice.
In TOS I believe that Gary Seven's transport was intercepted by Enterprise. I don't see how that's possible if the sensors can't detect incoming signals.
Just as possibly, Gary Seven's transport signal detected the Enterprise
and decided to materialize there, mistaking it for the New York office.
I think proposing transwarp beaming as a new type is weak. They didn't make any modifications to the shuttle transporter. It's regular transporting with a new algorithm
Transwarp transporter must be a completely new type, as the regular type never does FTL or long distances. OTOH, subspace transporter in TNG is a completely new type using the same old hardware
when Picard rigs the E-D systems to get to DaiMon Bok's ship. Good consistency there!