So, if division by zero somehow became a meaningful operation, would Data be able to explain it?
Yes. Why wouldn't he?
See, I'm confused as to why Data is of particular importance to the question, and also why division by zero is being singled out. In general, if there were any new developments in mathematics by the time of the 24th century in Star Trek, could any character explain them? I would think so, but I don't think Data would necessarily be any better at explaining the subject than any other person might be, particularly compared to someone trained to teach, which Data is not (yet).
I don't know. I think mathematicians can explain calculus better than laypersons. Even if Riker and Worf understand advanced calculus or know how to explain division by zero, it doesn't mean that they can do it as well as Data.
Data may not be more qualified to teach, but being an android, I think he'd understand the subject better. You can disagree if you want.