Narada was a civilian ship - with massively powerful shields, massively powerful weapons, and a lot of them, but inefficient sensors...
Powerful shields? These didn't seem to do any good at any point of the movie: all enemy shots got through, all enemy attempts at transportation got through, etc. The Narada
was all offense, with no defensive capabilities in evidence. And even all the offensive power seemed sort of accidental, the way a steamroller might make for a good impromptu tank, especially a century before tanks were invented.
None of this would appear to have any impact on the level of security systems aboard. It still remains a civilian installation, and a vast one crewed by a handful of people at that. And most of the time, it's probably way too dangerous
to be targeted by hostile boarders, for virtually zero gain: who would brave transporter-fouling drilling machinery to steal mining charges or repair drones?
Having no method of detecting incoming transporter signals is ludicrous. Transporter tech has been around for decades.
Transwarp beaming probably changed all the rules, though. I mean, if it really pushes the transportee through subspace in order to move him FTL, it would present as different a challenge to security systems as a computer virus is from a cat burglar... Most starships would still have cast iron gratings in the chimney as their first line of defense when the enemy would be coming in through broadband.
We saw in WWII that science keeps pace with the technology
Nobody invented a way to make aircraft invisible to radar in the six years of fighting against that particular technology (ways of making the aircraft more
visible, such as chaff, don't count). Which is probably a great analogy for the situation at hand: there's an offensive technology, and there is a need for a defensive one, but the defensive technology doesn't flow naturally from the existence of the offensive one.